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Your best bet is UCAR (a non-profit consortium created by 100+ research universities in meteorology), which has a wide array of online modules/lectures across the geosciences, in a program called COMET. They're all free and searchable by topic: https://www.meted.ucar.edu/training_detail.php
One textbook that covers what it seems like you are interested in is "Numerical Weather and Climate Prediction" - https://www.amazon.com/Numerical-Weather-Climate-Prediction-Tomkins/dp/0521513898
If you're interested in studying phenomena in the midlatitudes or tropics, I can recommend some other textbooks, but don't want to make a giant reply if it's not necessary.